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PRINCIPLES AND WORKING OF A LASER _PART 1
 
02:53
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. PRINCIPLES AND WORKING OF A LASER:In our earlier session we have learnt different characteristic properties of Lasers.Now let us learn about the principles of working of laser.Generally laser works in the form of process which consists of 4 important processes.They are: 1.Absorption2.Spontaneous emission3.Pumping and population inversion and4.Stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.Now let us discuss about the processes that takes place in atoms. ABSORPTION:It is well known that, atom consists of different energy states.Let us consider two energy states of an electron.Let us say ground state as Egand excited state as Ex.When electromagnetic energy falls on the atom, in the form of light photon of frequency 'v'.Whereas electromagnetic energy is equal to the difference of Eg- Ex = hv.When it energy falls on the electron, it absorbs the energy and jumps from ground state Eg to excited state Ex.SPONTANEOUS EMISSION:As we already said, electrons jump from ground state to excited state.But the excited electrons that jumped to higher energy state, doesn't remain for longer period in that state and come back to their original ground state by losing its energy in the form of photons.The photons don't have any correlation in phase and thus considered as incoherent light.Thus the release of energy by the electrons on their own is said to be as spontaneous emission.Transition of electrons from one state to another state occurs random in time.By definition,Spontaneous emission is defined as the process in which the electrons in the excited atoms are released on their own from their higher energy state to the ground state.PUMPING AND POULATION INVERSION:As we already said, the transitioned electrons don't stay for longer time in the excited state.There are electrons of some substances or systems, where they remain in the excited state for longer period.Such systems are called ACTIVE SYSTEMS or ACTIVE MEDIA.These are generally compounds or mixtures of different elements.When electrons turn into active systems, their electronic energy levels are also modified and thus it acquires some special properties.Now let us discuss them in detail.Now let us consider atom has three electronic states E1, E2, E3 in active medium.Generally electrons exist in lower state called as Ground state E1.Let us number of electrons in ground state as N1.As we already learnt., Due to the process of absorption when electromagnetic energy equal to the difference of E3 -- E1 are incident on atom, electrons jump from state 1 to the excited state 3.Due to the process of spontaneous emission, the excited electron in the E3 state remains for less period, in order of 10-8sec.Usually most of the electrons loses its energy due to spontaneous emission and returns from E3 state to E1 state. The number of electrons in this state is said to be as N1.But some of the electrons may lose very less energy E3 -E2and jump to state E2.The less emitted energy by electrons is called as Thermal energy. This energy is absorbed by the medium itself.The transition or jumping of electrons from E3 state to E2 state is called as non-radiative transition (or) invisible transition. The electrons in this state E2 remains for longer period compare to state E1, in the order of 3 x 10-3milli seconds.This electronic state is called as Metastable state.
Views: 89455 7activestudio
Hemodialysis
 
02:29
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Kidney is most essential organ to remove nitrogenous waste materials from the body. Kidney was damaged by several human activities leads to kidney failure. Once it is damaged it cannot perform basic functions. To overcome this problem one of the best method we follows called hemodialysis. Hemodialysis is a process of removing of nitrogenous waste materials and excess fluids from the blood (collecting from arteries) through tubes containing semi permeable linings in the dialyzer and sending purified blood to the patient's body through veins. It covers the process of hemodialysis in step wise manner. Hemodialysis only performs some basic functions not all those which are performed by natural kidney like reabsorption etc..
Views: 187803 7activestudio
IMMUNE RESPONSE
 
04:35
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use.
Views: 64697 7activestudio
Detection of Carbon And Hydrogen
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. DETECTION OF CARBON AND HYDROGEN:The analysis of an organic compound is the first step to find the elements present in it qualitatively.The detection of various elements present in an organic compound is called qualitative analysis.Carbon and Hydrogen are present in almost all organic compounds.Let us see the procedure of detecting carbon and hydrogen.Take the organic compound in a dry test tube and mix it with cupric oxide(cuo), three times its weight.Heat the compound strongly.The evolved gases are passed through a delivery tube containing a bulb with an hydrous copper sulphate.Then it passed into lime water taken in a test tube.If carbon is present, it forms Co2gas. The Co2gas turns lime water milky.The reactions involved in this process are:If hydrogen is present in the compound it forms H2O vapour.Watervapour when passed over white anhydrous CuSo4, it turns blue by forming CuSo4.5H2o.The reactions involved in this process are : The detection of various elements present in an organic compound is called qualitative analysis.For detection of carbon and hydrogen, take the organic compound in a dry test tube and mix it with cupric oxide. Heat it gets oxidized into carbon-dioxide (Co2).If Hydrogen is present in the organic compound, it is released as water vapour .Carbon dioxide gas turns lime water milky.Watervapour turns white anhydrous copper sulphate into blue.The reactions involved in this process are :Expected questions from this module:What is qualitative analysis and explain the procedure of detecting carbon and hydrogen in an organic compound.Write the equations involved in detecting carbon and hydrogen in an organic compound.Explain the principle involved indetecting carbon and hydrogen in an organic compound.
Views: 29540 7activestudio
CRITICAL ANGLE AND TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION
 
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Download SCIENCETUTS App to Access 120+ hours of Free content. For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. The critical angle is the angle of incidence above which total internal reflection occurs. The angle of incidence is measured with respect to the normal at the refractive boundary (see diagram illustrating Snell's law). Consider a light ray passing from glass into air.
Views: 51958 7activestudio
CRYSTAL LATTICE AND UNIT CELL
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Crystal Lattice and Unit Cell: A three dimensional cubic latticeThe three dimensional arrangement of particles as points in space is called space lattice or crystal lattice. There are 14 different three dimensional lattices are possible which are called Bravais lattice. Bravais was a French mathematician.Unit cell parameters a, b, c are three edges, as α, β and γ are the angles between them.Unit cell is the simple part of crystal lattice which repeats itself to generate a crystal. In unit cell the three edges are represented by a, b, and c and the angles between these edges as α, β and γ.Unit cell: 1 Primitive 2 Centered : 1 Body centered 2 Face centered 3End centered. Body Centered. Face Centered. End Centered. Types of unit cells: It is of two types: a Primitive and b Centered.When the constituent particles are present only at the corners of the unit cell then it is called primitive unit cell.When the constituent particles are present at other positions along with corners then it is called centered unit cell. It is again of three types: i Body centered, ii Face centered and iii End centered.If the constituent particle is present at the body centered along with corners called Body Centered Unit Cell.If the constituent particles are present at the 6 face centers along with corners called Face Centered Unit cell.If the constituent particles are present at the centers of any two opposite faces along with corners called End Centered Unit Cell.Seven crystal systems: Crystal Systems: - there are 230 crystal forms possible. These are classified into 32 classes on the basis of symmetry which are further divided into seven crystal systems depending on the crystallographic parameters a, b, c and α, β, γ.
Views: 236758 7activestudio
PRINCIPLES AND WORKING OF A LASER _PART 2
 
05:58
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. PRINCIPLES AND WORKING OF A LASER:In our earlier session we have learnt different characteristic properties of Lasers.Now let us learn about the principles of working of laser.Generally laser works in the form of process which consists of 4 important processes.They are: 1.Absorption2.Spontaneous emission3.Pumping and population inversion and4.Stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.Now let us discuss about the processes that takes place in atoms. ABSORPTION:It is well known that, atom consists of different energy states.Let us consider two energy states of an electron.Let us say ground state as Egand excited state as Ex.When electromagnetic energy falls on the atom, in the form of light photon of frequency 'v'.Whereas electromagnetic energy is equal to the difference of Eg- Ex = hv.When it energy falls on the electron, it absorbs the energy and jumps from ground state Eg to excited state Ex.SPONTANEOUS EMISSION:As we already said, electrons jump from ground state to excited state.But the excited electrons that jumped to higher energy state, doesn't remain for longer period in that state and come back to their original ground state by losing its energy in the form of photons.The photons don't have any correlation in phase and thus considered as incoherent light.Thus the release of energy by the electrons on their own is said to be as spontaneous emission.Transition of electrons from one state to another state occurs random in time.By definition,Spontaneous emission is defined as the process in which the electrons in the excited atoms are released on their own from their higher energy state to the ground state.PUMPING AND POULATION INVERSION:As we already said, the transitioned electrons don't stay for longer time in the excited state.There are electrons of some substances or systems, where they remain in the excited state for longer period.Such systems are called ACTIVE SYSTEMS or ACTIVE MEDIA.These are generally compounds or mixtures of different elements.When electrons turn into active systems, their electronic energy levels are also modified and thus it acquires some special properties.Now let us discuss them in detail.Now let us consider atom has three electronic states E1, E2, E3 in active medium.Generally electrons exist in lower state called as Ground state E1.Let us number of electrons in ground state as N1.As we already learnt., Due to the process of absorption when electromagnetic energy equal to the difference of E3 -- E1 are incident on atom, electrons jump from state 1 to the excited state 3.Due to the process of spontaneous emission, the excited electron in the E3 state remains for less period, in order of 10-8sec.Usually most of the electrons loses its energy due to spontaneous emission and returns from E3 state to E1 state. The number of electrons in this state is said to be as N1.But some of the electrons may lose very less energy E3 -E2and jump to state E2.The less emitted energy by electrons is called as Thermal energy.
Views: 81154 7activestudio
simple cubic cell
 
01:42
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Number of atoms in unit cell:Primitive cubic unit cell. In this type of unit cell the constituent particles occupy the 8 corners. So the total no. of atoms in one unit cell.Body centered unit cellIn this type of unit cell the constituent particles occupy the 8 corners and body center. So, the total no. of atoms in one unit cellFace centered unit cellIn this type of unit cell, the constituent particles occupy the 8 corners and 6 faces.One dimensional packingLet us consider the constituent particles as hard sphere which help us in explaining the packing.There is only one way of arraying the sphere and it is in contact with 2 other spheres. So its co-ordination.Two dimensional packing a Square close packingTwo dimensional packing can be arranged in two different ways.AArrange the second layer of spheres in contact with first layer such that each sphere is in contact with four other spheres. (Sphere is aligned horizontally as well as vertically). So the co-ordination number is 4. If the first row is of 'A' type and second row is exactly the same as first then this type of arrangement is called 'AAA' type of arrangement or square packing.Hexagonal close packing:Arrange the second layer of spheres in contact with first layer such that each sphere is in contact with 6 other spheres (second row spheres fit in the depression of first row spheres). So the co-ordination number is 6. If the first row is of 'A' type and second row is of 'B' type then this type of packing is called 'ABAB' type of packing or Hexagonal packing. The empty space is less when compared to square packing.Three dimensional close packingSimple cubic latticeEx: - PoloniumThese are generated by placing two dimensional layers on one above the other.This type of packing is obtained by placing layers exactly on the top of first layer. Such that each sphere is in contact with 6 spheres four from the same layer one from the top layer and one from the bottom layer. This type of arrangement is called 'AAA' type of arrangement. The total space occupied by the spheres is 52% and the remaining space is void.The co-ordination number is Ex: - Polonium.
Views: 92801 7activestudio
SOLID ANGLE
 
03:30
For accessing 7Activestudio videos on mobile Download SCIENCETUTS App to Access 120+ hours of Free digital content. For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. In geometry, a solid angle is the two-dimensional angle in three-dimensional space that an object subtends at a point. It is a measure of how large the object appears to an observer looking from that point.
Views: 19792 7activestudio
Excretion in human
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Excretion is a process of removing waste materials such as nitrogenous waste through excretory system is known as Excretion. Excretory system includes a pair of Kidneys; a pair of ureters, Urinary bladder and urethra to complete excretion process successfully. Excretion is carried out by one special organ in human body called Kidney. Kidney has specialized structure called nephrons for excretion. Kidney performs excretion process in three steps such as Filtration, Re absorption and secretion. Urinary bladder and urethra are mainly involved in Urination that is excretion of urine from the kidney.
Views: 623100 7activestudio
ANAPHYLAXIS
 
03:22
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use.
Views: 19891 7activestudio
STRUCTURE OF DNA
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Structure of DNA: The DNA molecule is a polymer consisting of several thousand pairs of nucleotide monomers.Each nucleotide consists of three components. They are 1. Pentose sugar deoxyribose 2. Phosphate group 3. Nitrogenous base Nucleoside = deoxyribose + nitrogenous base Nucleotide = deoxyribose + nitrogenous base + phosphate Pentose sugar:deoxyribose sugar is a pentose sugar with five carbon atoms. Phosphate: the phosphate is attached to the adjacent pentose sugar alternately at their 5th and 3rd carbon atoms by phospho -- diester bonds. The phosphate and pentose sugar constitute the back bone of nucleic acids. Nitrogen bases: there are two types of nitrogen bases 1.Purines adenine and guanine and 2.Pyramidines cytosine and thymine Nitrogenous base is linked to the pentose sugar through N- glycosidic linkage to form a nucleoside. When a phosphate is linked to 51 OH of a nucleoside through phosphoester linkage a corresponding nucleotide is formed. Two nucleotides are linked through 31 -- 51 phosphodiester linkage to form dinucleotide. More nucleotides are joined to form a polynucleotide chain. A polymer has at one end a free phosphate moiety at 51 end of ribose sugar, at the other end the ribose sugar has 31 OH group. The back bone in a polynucleotide chain formed due to sugar and phosphates. The nitrogenous bases linked to sugar moiety form the back bone.
Views: 49712 7activestudio
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN PARAMOECIUM
 
05:21
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Paramecia reproduce asexually, by binary fission. During reproduction, the macronucleus splits by a type of amitosis, and the micronuclei undergo mitosis. The cell then divides transversally, and each new cell obtains a copy of the micronucleus and the macronucleus.
Views: 56968 7activestudio
CANCER (CHEMOTHERAPY)
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use.
Views: 1238342 7activestudio
DEGREES OF FREEDOM
 
03:58
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. DEGREES OF FREEDOM:- The number of directions in which a particle can move freely is defined as its degree of freedom. OR The number of independent coordinates required to specify completely the position and orientation of a particle in space, is defined as its degree of freedom Degrees of freedom are of three types: they are, Degrees of freedom of translational motion f_t Degrees of freedom of rotational motion f_r and Degrees of freedom of vibrational motion f_v Degrees of freedom of translational motion f_t:- These are due to translational motion of molecules. Maximum number of translational degrees of freedom is 3 irrespective of that the molecule may be monatomic or polyatomic, linear or Non linear. These are present at ordinary temperature. Degrees of freedom of rotational motion f_r: These are due to rotational motion of a molecule about an axis passing through the centre of mass of the molecule. Their number depends up on the structure of molecule. These are also present at ordinary temperatures. Degrees of freedom of vibrational motion f_v: These are due to the vibrational motion of molecule about its equilibrium position. Their number depends up on the structure of the molecules. These are produced only at high temperatures. Degrees of freedom for:- Monoatomic gas:- A mono atomic gas molecule can move linearly in any direction along three co-ordinate axes. Hence its degrees of freedom is (f_t) = 3 Examples: molecules of noble gases like He (helium), Ne (neon), Ar (Argon) etc Diatomic gas:- The center of mass of two atoms is free to move along three Co-ordinate axes. Hence its translational degrees of freedom is f_t = 3 The molecules if these gases can rotate about a perpendicular axis passing through their center of mass in two directions. Hence its degree of freedom of rotating motion is f_r=2 , Therefore, total degrees of freedom f = f_t+ f_r = 3 + 2= 5 For a tri atomic or polyatomic gas non linear :- Degrees of freedom of translational motion, f_t = 3 and degrees of freedom of rotational motion, f_r = 3, Therefore, total degree of freedom, f =f_t+ f_r = 3 + 3 = 6 Note: In general, degrees of freedom can be determined as F = 3N -- B
Views: 141261 7activestudio
Position of gynoecium on the thalamus
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. POSTION OF GYNOECIUM ON THE THALAMUS: Based on the position gynoecium on the thalamus in relation to other floral parts, flowers are divided into three types, as follows: 1. Hypogynous Flowers, 2. Perigynous Flowers and 3. Epigynous Flowers. HYPOGYNOUS FLOWERS: Thalamus is convex or conical.The gynoecium is present at the tip of the thalamus. The remaining floral parts like calyx, corolla, androecium are arranged at the base of the gynoecium.In this flower, ovary is completely present outside the thalamus. So it is called 'SUPERIOR OVARY'. Examples:Hibiscus, Datura. PERIGYNOUS FLOWERS: Thalamus is concave or saucer shaped.The gynoecium is located centrally in the thalamus. The remaining floral parts like calyx, corolla, androecium are arranged along the margins.In this flower, ovary wall is adnated to thalamus only at the base. In this flower, ovary is present partly inside and partly outside the thalamus. So the ovary is called HALF-INFERIOR or HALF SUPERIOR OVARY. Example:Tephrosia. EPIGYNOUS FLOWERS: The thalamus is deep cup like in appearance. The ovary of the gynoecium is completely embedded in the thalamus. The wall of the ovary is completely fused with thalamus.The remaining floral parts like calyx, corolla and androecium are arranged along the margins of the thalamus. The ovary is completely inside the thalamus. So the ovary is called 'INFERIOR OVARY'. Example:Tridax.
Views: 19099 7activestudio
PRINCIPLES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. GENETIC ENGINEERING: In vitro DNA technology used to isolate genes from an organism, manipulate them in laboratory as per desire and insert them into another cell system for specific genetic trait. The conceptual development of the principle of genetic engineering: The techniques of genetic engineering include creation of recombinant DNA, use of gene cloning and gene transfer which helps to isolate and introduce only one or a set of desirable genes without introducing undesirable genes into the target organism.When a piece of DNA is introduced into alien organism, this piece of DNA would not be able to multiply itself in the progeny cells of the organism. But, when it gets integrated into the genome of the recipient, it may multiply and be inherited along with the host DNA. This is because; the alien piece of DNA has become the part of the chromosome, which has the ability to replicate.The construction of an artificial recombinant DNA molecule emerged from the possibility of linking a gene encoding antibiotic resistance with the native plasmid of Salmonella typhimurium. Stanley Cohen & Herbert Boyer accomplished this in 1972 by isolating the antibiotic resistance gene by cutting out a piece of DNA from a plasmid which was responsible for conferring antibiotic resistance. The cutting of DNA at specific locations became possible with the discovery of 'molecular scissors' - restriction enzymes. The cut piece of DNA was then linked with plasmid DNA. These plasmid DNA act as vectors to transfer the piece of DNA attached to it. Plasmid is used as vector to deliver an alien piece of DNA into the host organism. The linking of antibiotic resistance gene with the plasmid vector became possible with enzyme DNA ligase, which acts on cut DNA molecules and joins their ends. This makes a new combination of circular autonomously replicating DNA created in vitro and is known as recombinant DNA.When DNA is transferred into E. coli, it could replicate using the new hosts DNA polymerase enzyme and make multiple copies. The ability to multiply copies of antibiotic resistance gene in E. coli was called cloning of antibiotic resistance gene in E. coli.
Views: 77838 7activestudio
Doppler Effect In Light Waves
 
02:12
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. DOPPLER EFFECT IN LIGHT WAVES: In our earlier session we have learnt about Doppler effect in sound.Now let us learn about Doppler effect in light.The physicist had found Doppler effect in sound waves, later he applied to light waves also.In case of light, due to Doppler effect, when the source of light moving to observer, the frequency of emitted light changes.When the frequency of sound wave changes, the intensity of sound changes.When the frequency of light wave changes, the color of the light changes.If we see at visible spectrum, we will find red light which has longer wavelength and blue light which has shorter wavelength.So, if any shift towards longer wavelength it is said to be as "red-shifts" and any shift towards shorter wavelengths is said to be as "blue shifts".The change in frequency is same as change in wavelength.Longer wavelength has lower frequency and shorter wavelength has higher frequency.As per Doppler effect, when source moves towards us, it has high frequency with lower wavelength and then the shift is "Blue-shift".When source is away from us, it has lower frequency with. higher wavelength and then the shift is "Red-shift".The Doppler effect in light can be seen with the help of device called as "spectroscope."
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DYES, TYPES OF DYES AND DYES USES
 
03:00
Download SCIENCETUTS App to Access 120+ hours of Free content. For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. An acid dye is a dye which is a salt of a sulfuric, carboxylic or phenolic organic acid. The salts are often sodium or ammonium salts. Acid dyes are typically soluble in water and possesses affinity for amphoteric fibers while lacking direct dyes' affinity for cellulose fibers. These dyes are made from synthetic resources such as petroleum by-products and earth minerals. The first human-made organic aniline dye, mauveine, was discovered serendipitously by William Henry Perkin in 1856, the result of a failed attempt at the total synthesis of quinine. Soda Ash Dye Fixer. Soda ash is a mild alkali that promotes the chemical reaction between Procion MX fiber reactive dye and cellulose fiber. Soda ash is also known as sodium carbonate, washing soda, or sal soda.
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PROPAGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES _ PART 02
 
03:48
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Sky waves:In the frequency range from a few MHz up to 30 to 40 MHz, long distance communication can be achieved by ionospheric reflection of radio waves back towards the earth. This mode of propagation is called sky wave propagation and is used by short wave broadcast services. The ionosphere is so called because of the presence of a large number of ions or charged particles. It extends from a height of ~65 Km to about 400 Km above the earth’s surface. Ionisation occurs due to the absorption of the ultraviolet and other high-energy radiation coming from the sun by air molecules. The ionosphere is further subdivided into several layers, the details of which are given in Table. The degree of ionisation varies with the height. The density of atmosphere decreases with height. At great heights the solar radiation is intense but there are few molecules to be ionised. Close to the earth, even though the molecular concentration is very high, the radiation intensity is low so that the ionisation is again low. However, at some intermediate heights, there occurs a peak of ionisation density. The ionospheric layer acts as a reflector for a certain range of frequencies 3 to 30 MHz.Electromagnetic waves of frequencies higher than 30 MHz penetrate the ionosphere and escape. These phenomena are shown in the Figure. The phenomenon of bending of EM waves so that they are diverted towards the earth is similar to total internal reflection in optics. Space wave: Another mode of radio wave propagation is by space waves. A space wave travels in a straight line from transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. Space waves are used for line-of-sight LOS communication as well as satellite communication. At frequencies above 40 MHz, communication is essentially limited to line-of-sight paths. At these frequencies, the antennas are relatively smaller and can be placed at heights of many wavelengths above the ground. Because of line-of-sight nature of propagation, direct waves get blocked at some point by the curvature of the earth as illustrated in Figure. If the signal is to be received beyond the horizon then the receiving antenna must be high enough to intercept the line-of-sight waves.If the transmitting antenna is at a height hT, then you can show that the distance to the to the horizon dT is give where R is the radius of the earth approximately 6400 km.
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HEART ATTACK (ACS & MI)
 
04:34
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AESTIVATION
 
03:07
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. AESTIVATION: The mode of arrangement of perianth lobes in bud condition is called 'ASETIVATION'. It is of different types: 1. Valvate aestivation. 2. Twisted, 3. Ascendingly Imbricate, 4. Descendingly Imbricate (Vexillary) and 5. Quincuncial aestivation. Let us study them one by one. VALVATE AESTIVATION: Perianth lobes are arranged closely with small gaps between them. Example:Calyx of Hibiscus. TWISTED AESTIVATION: Perianth lobes overlap one another, in which one margin of one perianth lobe is covered by the margin of another perianth lobe. All perianth lobes has one margin inside and one margin outside. Examples:Corolla of Datura, Hibiscus. ASCENDINGLY IMBRICATE AESTIVATION: Each perianth lobe overlaps the perianth lobes present posterior to it. The overlapping of perianth lobes appear in postero-anterior direction In this one perinath lobe is completly present outside, and one perianth lobe is present completely inside. The remaining three has one margin inside and one margin outside. It is called 1+1+ 3 arrangement. Example:Corolla of Caesalpiniaceae. DESCENDINGLY IMBRICATE AESTIVATION: Each perianth lobe covers the perianth lobe present anterior to it.The overlapping of perianth lobes appear in postero anterior direction. Example:Corolla of Fabaceae--called Papilionaceous corolla. QUINCUNCIAL AESTIVATION: It is also a twisted type of aestivation. It shows five perianth lobes, in which two are present completely outside, two are present completely inside, fifthperianth member has one margin inside and one margin outside. The perianth lobes appear in 2+2+1 manner. Example:Calyx of Ipomea, Catharanthus.
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BRYOPHYTES
 
03:35
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. BRYOPHYTES: Bryophytes include the various mosses and liverworts that are found growing in moist shaded areas in the hills. Bryophytes are small group of primitive plants which are commonly called “amphibians” of the plant kingdom. The word bryophyte (bryon=moss, phyton=plant) was coined by Brown the study of bryophytes is called Bryology. They are characterized by following features. 1. Bryophytes chiefly occur in damp, shady and humid localities. 2. The plant body is a gametophyte (because it produces gametes). It is thallus like in primitive form (Riccia). In higher bryophytes the plant body is differentiated into rhizoids, stem and leaves. The stem is prostrate or erect, and attached to the substratum by unicellular or multicellular rhizoids. They are organs of absorption and fixation. 3. Nutritionally, the plant body is independent, and is the conspicuous phase of the life cycle.
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DIALYSIS
 
04:27
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TYPES OF JAUNDICE IN THE NEWBORN
 
02:43
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YOUNG’S DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT PART 01
 
05:21
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. YOUNG’S DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT:We have earlier discussed the phenomenon of interference of waves, therefore, it is natural to expect that light also exhibits the phenomenon of interference. But interference of light is not so evident as the interference of sound waves. This is due to the very small wavelength of light waves as compared to the wavelength of sound waves.In 1801, Thomas young demonstrated successfully the interference of light by performing a double slit experiment.Young allowed sunlight to pass through a hole and then at some distance through two pin holes S1 and S2. When light was received on a screen, an uneven distribution of light intensity was observed on the screen. A number of alternate dark and bright spots were seen on the screen. The phenomenon of interference can be understood on the basis of Huygens principle. The secondary wavelets coming from S1 and S2 have equal amplitude, velocity and wavelength. In figure, the continuous circular arcs represent the regions of wave crest. The dotted circular arcs represent regions of wave trough. At points marked by small circles, the trough of one wave is superposed over the trough of another wave or the crest of one wave falls over the crest of another wave. According to the principle of super position, the amplitude and hence the intensity of the resultant wave is maximum at these points. Similarly, the intensity is minimum at points marked by a “cross”. Thus, the resultant intensity is maximum along the lines connecting the “crosses”. On the screen, we get a number of alternate dark and bright regions of equal width. This is called interference pattern.Analytical treatment of interference.
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Transportation In Human Beings
 
03:05
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Transportation in human beings:Hello students, in our previous section we have learnt about nutrition and respiration, now let us discuss about transport in human beings and transport in plants. As we learnt earlier Blood transports food and oxygen salt and takes away waste materials from our body.Blood is a fluid connective tissue and fluid medium in blood is called as plasma in which cells are suspended. The Plasma in the blood helps in transportation of food, oxygen, Carbondioxide and nitrogenous wastes in dissolved form.The oxygen in the blood is carried by red blood cells.To perform all the functions of circulation a pumping organ called heart is present in human body, which consists of network of tubes to reach all the tissue of the system.Let us discuss about heart in detail.Heart is a muscular organ which is conical in shape which sizes as of fist and located on the left side of the chest.Let us discuss about structure of heart in detailSTRUCTURE OF HEART:The heart is divided into four (4) chambers.1.Right upper chamber.2.Right lower chamber. 3.Left upper chamber.4.Left lower chamber. Upper chambers of the heart are called as auricles or atrium.Lower chambers of the heart are called as ventricles.Ventricles have thicker muscles than auricles.To prevent backward flow of blood, valves are present between auricles and ventricles.The blood in the body is differentiated into two types of rich contents.Oxygen rich content blood is called as oxygenated blood.Carbondioxide rich content blood is called as deoxygenated blood. To prevent both types of blood mixing in the heart, heart is divided into. chambers.Oxygenated blood which is oxygen rich content reaches from lungs to heart and distributed to rest of the parts of the body.Deoxygenated blood which is carbon rich content collected from all parts of the body to heart for purification.This blood is sent to lungs for purification or oxygenation.Let us discuss this in step by step process.
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TB TRANSMISSION & PATHOGENESIS
 
02:56
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EMBRYO, FRUIT AND SEED
 
01:55
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VIRAL MENINGITIS
 
04:10
For more information: http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. VIRAL MENINGITIS Viral meningitis is an infection usually affecting children under 5 years of age. The virus causing the infection usually infects the meninges, which are the protective tissue coverings of the brain and spinal cord. The meninges is made up of 3 distinct layers : 1. The Pia mater – which is the layer directly in contact with the brain and spinal cord. 2. Arachnoid mater – which consists of spider web-like extensions. 3. The Dura mater – which is the outermost and toughest layer of the meninges. Cerebrospinal fluid or CSF,which also protects the brain and spinal cord,flows between the meninges and the surface of the brain. The most common causes of viral meningitis are : 1. The Mumps virus 2. The Measles virus 3. Enteroviruses 4. The Herpes virus 5. Japanese Encephalitis virus The most common mechanism of transmission include : 1. Sneezing or Coughing 2. Faecal contamination 3. Bite from an infected insect (such as a mosquito) After entering the body, the virus makes multiple copies of itself,and enters the bloodstream, eventually reaching the brain. Here, it crosses the blood brain barrier,to enter the CSF, ultimatley infecting the cells of the meninges.This causes an inflammation of the meninges,because of the body’s attempts to fight the infection. Symptoms of viral meningitis in an infant or young child include : 1. Fever 2. Irritability 3. Loss of appetite 4. Decreased consciousness Symptoms of viral meningitis in an older child or adult include : 1. Fever 2. Headache 3. Neck stiffness 4. Photosensitivity 5. Decreased consciousness 6. Nausea or vomitting In general,the symptoms of viral meningitis are less severe than what’s seen with bacterial meningitis. Treatment for viral meningitis include : 1. Use of Acetaminophen/NSAIDs (for the fever & headache). 2. Acyclovir (if the meningitis is caused by the Herpes virus) Besides supportive therapy, there is no specific treatment for viral meningitis, which usually runs it course within 2 weeks, if there are no complications.
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Screw Jack
 
01:45
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Screw jack: A type of jack that consists of a threaded cylinder that is moved up or down when the handle of the jack is turned.Mechanical advantage of screw jack:When an effort is applied to the handle, the effort moves in a circle of radius "d" while "d" is the length of the rod and the block "B" moves up equal to the pitch of the screw jack. If the handle is turned through one complete revolution in a circle of radius "d" the effort moves through a distance 2πd and consequently the load is raised through a height h. Hence, the mechanical advantage is given by:M.A. = 2𝝅d/h M.A. = Distance through which the effort is moved/height through which the load is raised. We know that the pitch of the screw is very small as compared to the length of the rod, so the mechanical advantage should be very large. Due to frictional force between the different parts of screw jack, the efficiency is less than one. It is due to the reason that lot heat energy is used for overcoming the frictional forces. It should be remembered that in case of screw jack friction is a necessary part of operation, because in the absence of friction, it would unwind at once when applied force is removed.
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THE HUMAN EAR
 
03:29
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. The Human Ear: (Auditory mechanism of hearing): The Human Ear is mainly divided into three portions. One is outer Ear which collects sound waves from surroundings, Second one is Middle Ear, which transmits amplified sound waves to the inner ear, and Third one is Inner Ear, which converts amplified sound waves into electrical signals. These electrical signals are passed through the auditory nerve to the brain and brain interprets them as sound. The Human Ear explains the auditory mechanism of hearing, working of three portions (Outer ear, Middle ear, Inner ear) in human ear which converts sound waves into electrical signals and auditory nerve transmits electrical signals to brain and brain interprets them as sound.
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Nematoda General Characters
 
03:35
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. NEMATODA - GENERAL CHARACTERS AND CLASSIFICATION:Nematodes are commonly referred to as roundworms, threadworms or pinworms.Nematodes is one of the largest groups of metazoan.Nematodes are pseudo-coelomates. Bilaterally symmetrical cylindrical body with triploblastic nature.GENERAL CHARACTERS OF NEMATODA:Some are parasites and others are free living in soil or water.Example: Rhabditis Body is long cylindrical without segmentation.Nematodes are characterized by a species specific number of cells or nuclei. Body of nematodes is slender cylindrical un-segmented with resistant cuticle.Body wall contains longitudinal muscles. Circular muscles are absent.Body cavity is pseudo-coelom.Epidermis is syncytial. Locomotory cilia are absent. Some have ciliated gastrodermalcells.Alimentary canal is simple straight tube. Mouth at anterior end and anus at the posteriorend.Digestion is both extra-cellular and intracellular. Intestine is non muscular.Blood vascular system is absent. Pseudo-coelomicfluid helps in the transport of nutrients.Excretory system contains 'H' shaped canals or excretory gland. Respiration is by anaerobic method.Nervous system consists of a circum-enteric nerve ring with ganglia.Sense organs are amphids (mechanical and chemoreceptors present at the anterior region of the body) and phasmidsglandulo sensory structures in the posterior region of the body.Sexes are separate. Sexual dimorphism is present. Males are smaller with curved posterior end. They possess a cloaca with one or two copulatory spicules. Females are longer with straight posterior end. Genital pore is separate from anus.Fertilization is internal.Development involves four moults of the cuticle.Nematodes exhibiteutely. It is a phenomenon in which cell division cease near the end of embryonic development, so that number of cells of the adult is constant.Developmentincludes rabdtiformlarva.CLASSIFICATION OF NEMATODA:Nematoda is divided into two classes.Class 1: Aphasmidia.Class 2: Phasmidia.Class 1: APHASMIDIA. These are mostly free living.Amphids are of various shape and highly modified.Phasmids are absent.Excretory glands are present and excretory canals are absent.Examples: Greeffiella Free living.Trichinella Trichina worm parasite.Class 2: PHASMIDIA.Some are freeliving and others are parasitic.Amphids are porelike.Phasmids are present.Excretory glands orexcretory canals or both are present.Examples: Ascaris common round warm,Enterobius pinworm, Wuchereria Filarial worm,Ancylostoma hook worm.See the table showing common names and scientific names of important phasmids and aphasmids.
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ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
 
02:55
For accessing 7Activestudio videos on mobile Download SCIENCETUTS App to Access 120+ hours of Free digital content. For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Generally, electromagnetic radiation is classified by wavelength into radio wave, microwave, terahertz (or sub-millimeter) radiation, infrared, the visible region that is perceived as light, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays. The behavior of EM radiation depends on its wavelength.
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Sigma and Pi bonds
 
02:04
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. In chemistry, sigma bonds (σ bonds) are the strongest type of covalent chemical bond.[1] They are formed by head-on overlapping between atomic orbitals. Sigma bonding is most clearly defined for diatomic moleculesusing the language and tools of symmetry groups. In this formal approach, a σ-bond is symmetrical with respect to rotation about the bond axis. By this definition, common forms of sigma bonds are s+s, pz+pz, s+pz and dz2+dz2 (where z is defined as the axis of the bond).[2] Quantum theory also indicates that molecular orbitals (MO) of identical symmetry actually mix. As a practical consequence of this mixing of diatomic molecules, thewavefunctions s+s and pz+pz molecular orbitals become blended. The extent of this mixing (or blending) depends on the relative energies of the like-symmetry MO's In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of one involved atomic orbital overlap two lobes of the other involved atomic orbital. Each of these atomic orbitals is zero at a shared nodal plane, passing through the two bonded nuclei. The same plane is also a nodal plane for the molecular orbital of the pi bond.
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Nutrition in Human Beings
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. NUTRITION IN HUMAN BEINGS:The process of nutrition in human beings is called as digestion.Human beings consist of specialized organs for the process of digestion called as digestive system.Digestive system includes. Alimentary canal: The alimentary canal starts from mouth to anus.Digestive enzymes: The gastric glands that are present in the stomach secrete hydrochloric acid and protein digestive enzymes like pepsin and mucus.The alimentary canal in the digestive system consists of various parts. Let us discuss them in detail. MOUTH:Mouth is the first part of the alimentary canal. In mouth the food is crushed to generate small particles with small texture with the help of teeth and muscular tongue which helps to move on either sides of the mouth. This process is called as chewing.The crushed food forms into a soft bolus with help of saliva that is secreted by salivary glands.The food we take through the mouth is in complex nature but for absorption into alimentary canal food should be converted into smaller molecules. This can be done with help of biocatalysts such as salivary amylase which is present in saliva.The saliva breaks down complex molecules into simple molecule sugar.Now the food should enter into digestive tube in a regulated manner and processed properly.The digestive canal has a lining of muscles which helps to push food forward. These movements are called as peristaltic movements which occur along the gut. i.e., from stomach to anus.
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MOLLUSCA GENERAL CHARACTERS
 
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MAGNETIC SEPARATION
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. MAGNETIC SEPARATION:This is based on differences in magnetic properties of the ore components. If the ore particles are magnetic and the non-magnetic material is gaungethis method is used. The finely powdered ore is dropped on a belt moving on two strong electromagnetic rollers. The magnetic and nonmagnetic substances form two separate heaps. The magnetic material forms a heap nearer to the magnetic roller FROTH FLOATATION METHOD:Ores concentrated by froth floatation processare Copper Pyrites and Iron PyritesThe ore contains very small mineral particles which are not easy to separate from gangue. Then froth floatation method is used. Mostly this is used to concentrate sulphide minerals. In this process the ore is finely powdered. It is suspended in water taken in a tank. To the contents a suitable oil like pine oil or olive oil is added. A frothing agent like sodium ethyl xanthate is mixed. Then froth is formed and carries the ore particles with it. The gangue settles down at the bottom of the tank. The froth, if allowed to settle, leaves behind the concentrated ore. The bubbles of the froth formed are stabilized by adding "collectors". The hydrocarbon chains in them possess oily nature and so prevent the ore particles from going into the aqueous layer. The gangue is wetted by water and so remains in the aqueous layer. The gangue is wetted by water and so remains in the aqueous layer.For the ore particles in the suspension to float, the conditioners like lime, sodium carbonate are added.The ore contains very small mineral particles which are not easy to separate from gangue. Then froth flotation is used
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DEFECTS OF VISION AND THEIR CORRECTION
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. DEFECTS OF VISION AND THEIR CORRECTION: The eye may gradually lose its power of accommodation. In such conditions, the person cannot see the objects distinctly and comfortably. The vision becomes blurred due to the refractive defects of the eye. There are mainly three common refractive defects of vision. These are 1.Myopia or near-sightedness, 2.Hypermetropia or farsightedness, and 3. Presbyopia. These defects can be corrected by the use of suitable spherical lenses. We discuss below these defects and their correction. Myopia: The light from a distant object arriving at the eye lens may get converged at a point in front of the retina in the vitreous body. This type of defect is called near sightedness or myopia. Let us observe these cases, and then you can understand the concept 'myopia'. In the case of normal eye, the light rays from the object fall on the eye and converge on the retina.In the case of myopic eye, the light rays from the object fall on the eye and focuses the light at a point in front of the retina in the vitreous body. The correction for myopia: To compensate this, we interpose a concave lens between the eye and the object, with the diverging effect desired to get the image focused on the retina. Hypermetropia: If the eye-lens focuses the incoming light at a point behind the retina, this defect is called far sightedness or hypermetropia. Let us observe these cases, and then you can understand the concept 'hypermetropia'.In the case of normal eye, the light rays from the object fall on the eye and converge on the retina.In the case of hypermetropic eye, the light rays from the object fall on the eye and focuses the incoming light at a point behind the retina. The correction for hypermetropic eye: A convergent lens is needed to compensate for the defect in vision. Presbyopia:What is presbyopia?Presbyopia is a common type of vision disorder that occurs as you age. It is often referred to as the aging eye condition. Presbyopia results in the inability to focus up close, a problem associated with refraction in the eye.How does presbyopia occur? Presbyopia happens naturally in people as they age. The eye is not able to focus light directly on to the retina due to the hardening of the natural lens. Aging also affects muscle fibers around the lens making it harder for the eye to focus on up close objects. The ineffective lens causes light to focus behind the retina, causing poor vision for objects that are up close. When you are younger, the lens of the eye is soft and flexible, allowing the tiny muscles inside the eye to easily reshape the lens to focus on close and distant objects. TAG's: astigmatism -1.00, astigmatism -2, cataracts, macular degeneration, myopia -1.5, vision correction, lasik vision correction, vision correction options, overnight vision correction,how much does lasik cost,how much does lasik cost, lasik eye surgery,myopia treatment, glaucoma, cataract surgery, astigmatism, presbyopia,lasik md, laser surgery, laser surgery for eyes, lazy eye surgery, corrective eye surgery, glaucoma symptoms, blurred vision.
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VISCOSITY_PART 01
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS: VISCOSITY:Just as surface tension is the property of liquid at rest, viscosity is the property of fluid in motion. Most of the fluids are not ideal ones. They offer some resistance to the fluid motion. When the fluid moves in the form of layers having different velocity, tends to destroy the relative motion of the different layers of the fluid. This resistance is an internal friction of fluid, similar to the friction when a solid moves on the surface of another solid. This internal friction of moving fluid is called viscosity of fluid.Thus, viscosity is the property of the fluid liquid or gas by virtue of which an internal fictional force comes into play when the fluid is in motion in the form of layers having relative motion. It opposes the relative motion of the different layers. Viscosity is also called us fluid friction.To understand viscosity of fluid, take a fluid i,e. liquid oil enclosed between two parallel glass plates as shown in Figure. Keep the bottom plate fixed and move the top plate by applying some force with a constant velocity u, relative to the fixed plate. Replace the oil with honey, we will note that a greater force is required to move the top plate with the same velocity. It shows that the honey has more internal frictional force than oil, i.e., honey is more viscous than oil. In the above experiment, the layer of liquid in contact with the surface has the same velocity as that of the surface. It means, the layer of the liquid in contact with top glass plate moves with the velocity ‘u’ and the layer of liquid in contact with the fixed glass plate is stationary. The velocity of the different layers of liquid increases uniformly from bottom zero velocity to the top layer velocity ‘u’.Every fast moving layer tends to pull forward its lower slow moving layer and every slow moving layer tends to pull backwards the upper fast moving layer. This produces a viscous force called internal frictional force or viscosity between the two layers of the liquid, which tends to destroy the relative motion of the two layers of liquid. Therefore, to maintain the relative velocity between the two layers of liquid flow, a force F equal to the viscous force acting between these two layers is to be applied tangentially on the liquid layer. Let initially BCDE be the portion of the liquid in between two parallel glass plates and be the thickness of liquid. Let A be the area of the liquid in contact with glass plate.
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SIMPLE  HARMONIC MOTION
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION:A body is said to be in Simple Harmonic Motion, if it moves to and fro about its mean position such that, at any given point its acceleration is directly proportional to its displacement in magnitudebutopposite in direction and is directed always towards the mean position.From this example , we shall discuss about Simple Harmonic Motion.ObserveSimple pendulum:Simple pendulum oscillates about its mean position .Acceleration & displacements are in opposite directions.Acceleration should always be directed towards its midpoint.In other words , the above are the conditions for a body to be in SHM.Simple Harmonic MotionExamples:SHM is one of the basic concept in physics. mechanical wave like sound wave , propagatesas a result of simple harmonic oscillations of the particles of the medium.Projection of a particle performing uniform circular motion on a circumfrence of the circle .Makes some displacement in same intervals of time t.In this example, the spring oscillatiesabout its mean position,Acceleration is more , displacement is more.Thevibrations of a tuning fork oscillates about its mean position that is i.e., its vibrations are in SHM.Oscillations of a liquid column in a U-tube.In U-tube, liquid oscillates about it mean position i.e., (that is) its oscillation is in SHM.These are different examples of Simple Harmonic Motion.Thefollowig are the conditions for a body to be in Simple Harmonic Motion, 1 The motion should be periodic about a fixed point. 2 Acceleration and displacements should be always in opposite directions. 3 The acceleration should always be directed towards the fixed mean position. A body is said to be in simple harmonic motion , if it moves to and fro about its mean position such that , at any point its acceleration is directly proportional to its displacement in magnitude but opposite in direction and is always directedtowards the mean position."Explanation of Simple Harmonic Motion by Reference Circle:Observe Simple pendulum andReference circle.Simple Harmonic Motion has a close relationship with uniform circular motion.Let us consider a particle 'P' moving on the circumfrence of a circle of radius 'A' with uniform angular velocity 'w'( omega ).Let 'N' be the foot of the perpendicular of the 'P' particle.When Pendulum moves , As 'P' moves on the Circumfrence of the circle , N moves on the diameter of YY' and about the centre 'O'i.e., (that is) the motion of 'N' on the diameter is the projection of the motion P.Position of 'N ' at any time 't' after leaving the point 'O' , during its motion.
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CLOSE PACKED STRUCTURES
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Two dimensional packing can be arranged in two different ways. (a) Arrange the second layer of spheres in contact with first layer such that each sphere is in contact with four other spheres. (Sphere is aligned horizontally as well as vertically). So the co-ordination number is 4. If the first row is of ‘A’ type and second row is exactly the same as first then this type of arrangement is called ‘AAA’ type of arrangement or square packing. (b) Arrange the second layer of spheres in contact with first layer such that each sphere is in contact with 6 other spheres (second row spheres fit in the depression of first row spheres). So the co-ordination number is 6. If the first row is of ‘A’ type and second row is of ‘B’ type then this type of packing is called ‘ABAB’ type of packing or Hexagonal packing. The empty space is less when compared to square packing.
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RADIOACTIVITY
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. RADIO ACTIVITY Definition:The self- disintegrating, spontaneous activity in the form of emission of radiations by some unstable nuclei with atomic number greater than 83 is called natural Radio activity.Radio activity was discovered in 1896 by a French physicist "A.H. Becquerel".Radiations were classified into three types, according to their penetrating capacity they are. 1. α -- Particles. 2. β-- Particles. 3.γ-- Particles. A strong magnetic field is applied at right angles to the plane of the paper, the beam splits in to three distinct components.α-- Particles have least penetrating power. β-- Particles more penetrating power than α (Alpha) -- particles. γ-- Particles are most penetrating power than β(Beta) -- particles.Transmutation:Definition:The process of transformation of one element into another element by bombarding with high energy particles is known as "Transmutation".Definition:The process of change of one chemical element into another chemical element through natural radioactive day, such as αdecay and βdecay is known as "natural Transmutation".Examples of natural Transmutation are potassium - 40 to the Argon -- 40 which forms most of the Argon in air.
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OVULATION & THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE
 
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Reproductive System of Frog
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Reproductive system of frog: Sexes are separate in frogs, exhibits sexual dimorphism and have well organized male and female reproductive systems.Male reproductive system: Male reproductive system of frog consists of testis, vasa efferentia, urenogenital duct and cloaca.Testis: A pair of yellowish ovoid testis found adhered to the upper part of kidneys by a double fold of peritoneum called mesoorchium.Vasa efferentia: These are 10 to 12 in number that arise from testes, enters the kidney on their side and opens into Bidder's canal. Finally it communicates with the urinogenitalduct.Urinogenital duct comes out of the kidneys and open into the cloaca.Cloaca: The cloaca is a small, median chamber that is used to pass faecal matter, urine and sperms to the exterior.Female reproductive system: The female reproductive system consists of ovaries and oviduct.Ovaries: A pair of ovaries situated near kidneys and there is no functional connection with kidneys.Oviduct: A pair of oviduct arising from the ovaries opens into the cloaca separately.A mature female can lay 2500 to 3000 ova at a time. Fertilization is external and takes place in water.Development involves a larval stage called tadpole.Tadpole undergoes metamorphosis to form the adult.
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ARTHROPODA GENERAL CHARACTERS
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. They posses a chitinous exoskeleton that must be shed during growth. The paired appendages (e.g., legs, antennae) are jointed. The segmented bodies are arranged into regions, called tagmata (e.g., head, thorax, abdomen). They have bilateral symmetry.
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THE BRAIN & MENTAL HEALTH
 
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Download SCIENCETUTS App to Access 120+ hours of Free content. For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use.
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The Human Eye
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. The human eye: is the most valuable and sensitive sense organ and it is a natural optical instrument. The important parts of the eye: Cornea, Iris, Pupil, Eye Lens, Retina. Power of Accommodation: The ability of the eye to focus objects lying at different distances is called the power of accommodation of the eye. Least Distance of Distinct Vision Near point: Near point or least distance of distinct vision is the point nearest to the eye at which an object is visible distinctly The far point of the eye: Far point of the eye is the maximum distance up to which the normal eye can see things clearly. It is infinity for a normal eye. The twinkling of a star is due to atmospheric refraction of starlight. Scattering of light: When a beam of light falls on an atom, it causes the electron in the atom to vibrate. The vibrating electrons, in turn, re-emit light in all directions. This process is called scattering.
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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CORPUSCULAR AND WAVE THEORY OF LIGHT
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CORPUSCULAR AND WAVE THEORY OF LIGHT:In Our earlier session we have learnt about Newton's corpuscular theory and wave theory of light.Now let us the difference between them.NEWTON'SCORPUSCULAR THEORY OF LIGHT: 1.According to Corpuscular theory, Light consists of stream of extremely small particles called as corpuscles.2.The rectilinear propagation of light is explained by the straight line motion of corpuscles.3.The difference in the size of corpuscles results in different colours of light.4.The reflection and refraction of light are explained by attraction and repulsion of corpuscles by the medium.5.It cannot explain the phenomena of interference and diffraction and polarization of light.6.This theory has predicted that the velocity of light in a denser medium is greater than that in a rarer medium.WAVE THEORY OF LIGHT:1. According to wave theory of light, Light travels in the form of waves.2.The rectilinear propagation of light is explained by the advancement of wavefront along the direction of normals drawn to it.3.The difference in the wavelengths results in different colours of light.4.The reflection and refraction of waves are explained by the construction of secondary wavefronts as per Huygens's principle.5.It can explain the phenomena interference, diffraction and polarization of light.6.This theory has proved that velocity of light in a denser medium is less than that in a rarer medium.
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PLANE OF POLARIZATION_PART 01
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. POLARIZATION: Introduction: The experiments on interfaces and diffraction have shown that light is a form of wave motion. These effects do not tell us about the types of wave motion i.e. whether the light waves are longitudinal or transverse, or whether the vibrations are linear, circular or torsional. The phenomenon of Polarization has helped to establish beyond doubt that light waves are transverse waves. Polarization of transverse waves:Let a rope AB be passed through two parallel slitS1 and S2. The rope is attached to a fixed point at B. Hold the end A and move the rope up and down perpendicular to AB.A wave images along CD and it is due to transverse vibrations parallel to the slit S1. The slit S2 allows the wave to pass through it when it is parallel to S1. It is observed that the slit S2 does not allow the wave to pass through it when it is at right angles to the slit S1.If the end A is moved in a circular manner, the rope will show circular motion up to the slit S1. Beyond S1, it will show only linear vibrations parallel to the slit S1, because the slit S1 will stop and the other components. If S1 and S2 are right angles to each other the rope will not show any vibration beyond S2.If longitudinal waves are setup by moving the rope forward and backward along the string, the waves will pass through S1 and S2 irrespective of their positions.A similar phenomenon has been observed in light when it passes through a tourmaline crystal. Let light from a source S fall on a tourmaline crystal A which is cut parallel to its axis.The crystal A will act as the slit S1¬. The light is slightly colored due to the natural color.
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The Debate Over Pubg New Weapons Top Tips of Pubg Quotes

For competitive play its important to draw players in with more than simply bragging rights. Therefore, only a mid-range smartphone that players may have the game perfectly. Unfortunately, theres no game out there which exactly resembles GGO. A game like PUBG needs to be handled with care. For example in Pubg, the gameplay is sort of slow when compared with its two concurrents, thus if the looting process is adaptive he must be also slow to be prosperous. The graphics werent as developed as various other versions, and it doesnt support split-screen for the Multiplayer. Equipping a unique mod before starting a match permits you to carry eight of them simultaneously! Pubg New Weapons - Dead or Alive? If a person is suspected of travelling abroad to take part in terrorism, police can seize passports for as much as 30 days while the person is investigated further. The very first step on that is to construct a Boosted Implosion bomb. So hunting the enemies is the very best approach to have higher chance to receive fantastic items, hence higher opportunity to win the game eventually. For example, you are within fire and attempting to sprint to a cover. Youve got a great deal of ground to cover, so if you dont find a Chocobo Stable you can expect to become into a great deal of battles. If it is not dead by now, then theres something holding it, and perhaps its player base on console that might be not THAT small. PUBGs strong place in the territory can likewise be seen in the quantity of time players are spending in the game. 1 hit kill no matter in which you hit (back as soon as the Alpha was playable). Oddly enough, getting shot all of the time actually makes the entire thing not as stressful. The guns have three distinct modes of operation, every one of which will decide on the action of the trigger tail on the firing pin, and thus will be taken into consideration in its usage. A pistol will be a lot better for combat, for an extremely speedy usage, but the revolver will promise a lengthier life, without needing to pay exclusive attention. The video game release schedule is in fact manageable for the very first time in months. In pretty much every city and town in the USA, and many around the Earth, youll discover a public venue that hosts live music. Theres additionally a multiplayer arena to check your skills against other players online. Comparable to other Battle Royale games, the aim is to survive until youre the last man standing. My team and I can truly feel the growth to initiate a new battle immediately. 1 match may offer you a terrific bounty early, the subsequent one a weak haul. Losing a match in the very first couple minutes isnt so bad once youre in a position to swiftly hop into another. Competitive titles which have been successful in retaining a huge player base are simple to learn but hard to master. Theres a keen consciousness of the volatile potential for sudden violence. The community of players are extremely tough hereguys dont permit one another to relax. Therefore the public ought to go about their company in the standard way and, like usual, be vigilant and cooperate with the police. The most recent report claims that 100 million plays monthly. Underneath, theres a grace note of menace. Using oral histories is extremely specific and very intricate.

Based on everybodys skills, maps differ from close range to medium or massive places. Since that time, the community-made map was retooled and remastered nearly a dozen times, and is presently known as Dust2. The in-game map outlines the circular zone which you want to reach from the offset, and the HUD shows a handy graph of the rest of the distance youve got to cover and how long youve left to get there. The new PUBG map is going to be a 4x4 kilometers in proportion, a quarter size of Miramar map, so the matches can be held at a significantly faster pace. In any event, you should keep moving towards a gradually shrinking playable place. Also, there arent any danger zones in the game to assemble player. The New Angle On Pubg Game Modes Just Released

Your game style has an important role here. Until then, make sure you check Battlegrounds to find out whether the customized match feature is up and running. With a number of the games finest players and most well-known streamers attending, its going to be the very first showcase of PUBGs esports potential. You can find with some completely new blend of cocktail drink and have fun naming it. The usage of oral histories is quite specific and very intricate. A wonderful case of the particular abilities is Faceless. Itas one any variety of others would do. Contrary to other lists, the amount of appearances made by the players is taken into account. Before you begin a Call of Duty WW2 Nazi zombie game, equip the exceptional ability that enables you to shoot infinite ammo for a temporary time period. What You Dont Know About Pubg Rating

You havent tasted the authentic Italian cuisine till you eat in Puglia. Utilizing traditional and contemporary techniques of brewing, its known for some exceptional beer tastes. If youre browsing for some normal British beer taste, then its possible to bank upon Carling, which is an organization that itself believes there is nothing better than the British barley. Halloumi cheese has a rather significant melting point that makes it perfect for grilling or frying. Its possible to opt from a number of alcoholic drinks but then, you need to know their names. You also get a totally free birthday drink. When a specific alcohol is mixed with fruit juice, liqueur or other flavors in a particular proportion, its referred to as a cocktail. What You Need to Know About Pubg Rating If youre thinking of visiting the Harry Potter Wizarding World, you are going to want to get the actual perspective on what to anticipate. With a timeless haunting, the soul of a dead person has made a decision to stay behind for numerous factors. Okay, unless youve been buried beneath a rock for a gamer, you already understand what TitanFall is about. Either way, be certain the fan you get is UL Listed for the application you need so you know that it can be safely installed without developing a possible electrical hazard. In more humid climates, outdoor fans are a really good pick for every room in the house. If youre planning on installing a ceiling fan in an outdoor place, its important to buy a fan thats designed particularly for that goal.

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