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The Largest Power Plant Of The World - Geographic History

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The Largest Power Plant Of The World - Geographic History. The world's first power station was designed and built by Lord Armstrong at Cragside, England in 1868. Water from one of the lakes was used to power Siemens dynamos. The electricity supplied power to lights, heating, produced hot water, ran an elevator as well as labor-saving devices and farm buildings. The first public power station was the Edison Electric Light Station, built in London at 57, Holborn Viaduct, which started operation in January 1882. This was a project of Thomas Edison that was organized and managed by his partner, Edward Johnson. A Babcock and Wilcox boiler powered a 125-horsepower steam engine that drove a 27-ton generator called "Jumbo", after the celebrated elephant. This supplied electricity to premises in the area that could be reached through the culverts of the viaduct without digging up the road, which was the monopoly of the gas companies. The customers included the City Temple and the Old Bailey. Another important customer was the Telegraph Office of the General Post Office, but this could not be reached though the culverts. Johnson arranged for the supply cable to be run overhead, via Holborn Tavern and Newgate. Read More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_station
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Text Comments (1015)
S.K JAIN LALITPUR (1 month ago)
Excellent Video
John Wick (3 months ago)
yeah bullshit no tesla no electric future
SCNcz (3 months ago)
The huge wireless power tower Tesla created had one major downfall. The EM field it created would have caused an epidemic of cancers. The wireless phone systems & wifi using ghz frequencies (microwave) as all cellphones have used since 1995 are just as dangerous but extreme effort has been made to bury the info & sue any doctor which suggests it as the cause. My ex sister in law who works for the phone company had a lemon sized brain tumor from constant cell phone & bluetooth use. Her surgeon said this has been an increasingly frequent condition. As for electricity, a good friends wife has leukemia. She works for a power company in California & says 50% of the employees develop leukemia. Especially those who work on the high voltage transmission lines. They maintain silence to benefit from company medical care & high salaries. Children under 6 are most susceptible to cancers from these energy fields due to their cells in constant growth & change. But exposure should be limited to over 21 adults. Even then on a short term exposure basis. Florida power gave land under high Voltage lattice towers to build schools. This created an epidemic of brain cancers in the youngest children. Also, Nokia's cell phone with a one inch stump antenna was called the brain cancer phone in the 90's due to it being blamed for a woman's brain cancer in Florida who was a heavy cell phone user. The tumor developed where the antenna contacted her head. A long antenna would have helped prevent brain cell malformation by transmitting away from the head, but the manufacturers of cell phones removed the antennas instead to create a false sense of safety. Using an ear device is worse. Most of this info has been whitewashed from the internet to keep people in ignorance. Most cell phone RF engineers of the 90's wouldn't use their phones when the design changed from MHz to Ghz frequencies. Microwave ghz frequencies are commonly feared for the cancers & sterility in those who work in close proximity to microwave towers or ovens. At certain levels or exposures, the cells are cooked by cavitation or altered. Similar issues occur with the EM fields of very high voltage electricity causing leukemia, so you can imagine their reaction when the ghz antennas were installed on top of the high voltage lattice towers & the cell site equipment below the towers. The best of both worlds of exposure risk & fear. The old analog cellphones using the mid 800 mhz only needed cell towers every 10 sq miles. The new digital phones in the low Ghz frequencies needed towers every 1.5 to 3 sq miles. A massive difference. The cellphone alliance knowing what to expect built their defense 10 years before any claims occurred & easily won their argument. The aggressive legal defense style was similar to Monsanto's MO. Hence, you never hear about any of those issues which have since been wiped away.
Ms.Fixit (4 months ago)
Edisons main competitor Tesla.. Not westinghouse. Westinghouse went up against GE. It looked more like this.. Edison vs Tesla. Ge vs Westinghouse. But american companies like to make america look like it deserves all the credit for anything ever invented. Ge owned Edison later in his career until the day they pushed him out. Tesla stayed with westinghouse for most of his life. Tesla was also treated very well by westinghouse. History channel, Modern Marvels and all those shows are propaganda outlets for america.
John Doe (4 months ago)
you people sure short change tesla the inventer of alternating current . oh thats right lets not give the foreigner much credit just a foot note .
fire Angel (4 months ago)
But what about Tesla
Bryant NorCal (4 months ago)
Thumbs down for misleading title!
GeO jOvE (4 months ago)
sarcasmo57 (4 months ago)
I have the power!!!
Terry Oesch (5 months ago)
We are domed from nuclear power
J R (5 months ago)
Well electricity is based on the flow of holes not so much the flow of electrons. Hole flow theory is right. Took 5 calculus classes and 4 circuit theory courses to get a proof.
Joshua Alvarado (5 months ago)
Bunch of BS, Nicola Tesla should be mentioned!
The video's aspect ratio is incorrect.
"The Largest Power Plant Of The World?" How about "The Largest Power Plant in the World?"
sojourn Traveler (5 months ago)
"O" Raw, Raw, Raw for the development of the Nuclear power monster that has never been dealt with responsibly. I state this as the solution for Nuclear waste has never and will never be addressed successfully. The effects of Santa Susana nuclear accident are still killing people in LA. The glassification at Hanford is a long term joke. Fukushima is still killing off the pacific ocean, The forecast for the aging infrastructure of the nuclear power industry is deadly as people only look at the issue as not their problem but the problem of future generations . And in fact it is, the legacy our society is giving them. The steam engine that turned the alternator at the Chicago worlds fair is on display yet today ( Big red flywheel in park can not be missed.) in Kettle Falls WA. It was used to power sawmills for years until it went through a fire .
Wim van de Sande (5 months ago)
nucliar energy is a CRIMINAL act... A crime against humanety and life in general. LOCK THEM UP!!!and start cleaning!
Sunglass Shinpan (5 months ago)
I'm out at 2:43! No mention of Nikola Tesla means the History Channel IS NOT TELLING YOU THE REAL HISTORY!
Steven Baker (5 months ago)
Thats shocking ant
Roger Jordan (5 months ago)
Approx 7:35 67 million people attend the fair in 18??. Not likely. This vid is misleading. Shoulda read the comments first.
Rick Flores (5 months ago)
It is sad that the few of The anti-nuclear Advocates have any knowledge regarding nuclear engineering. The truth is that there is nearly no waste whatsoever coming out of a nuclear reactor that provides electrical power. The problem is purely a political one. Every country that has power generation via nuclear three processes that spent fuel except the United States. Of course the United States military reprocess is all of the spent fuel from there submarines and aircraft carriers period is a well-understood process and extremely safe. Basically you remove elements that absorb neutrons and simply return the fuel to the reactor. This is why we do not refer to spent fuel as waste because it isn't waste. How many people know about this? Almost none because of the tremendous political power of the anti-nuclear activist. I applaud their tenacity and wish that they had equal understanding. I seek the only educate those who misunderstand the realities of nuclear power. It does not emit any greenhouse gases nor any other form of pollution that is relevant. Whereas all fossil fuel plants emit far more radioactive material that is allowed by the NRC, but since they are not regulated by the NRC, no one stops it. Coal-burning power plants all Hitman it hundreds of thousands of tons of radioactive thorium and other trains romantic elements into the air every year, yet no one seems to care and people complain about nuclear power when it emits no radiation whatsoever. In fact the natural radiation in concrete is far greater than any radiation coming from the reactor vessel. The containment vessel is not there to actually contain the reactor but is actually there in case somebody tries to hit the Reactor with an aircraft. In fact is designed to take a direct hit by 747 fully loaded. There is no concern about an explosion as all reactors have safety valves. In the 60 years of nuclear power generation in the United States not one person do to a nuclear accident. We cannot say this about any other form of power generation including hydroelectric! The sad reality is that nuclear power the best method relative to environmental concerns reliability and economics. all well-educated experts in the field agree with this statement. It is only uneducated but caring people who failed to recognize the true benefits of nuclear power. In 1985 I delivered a speech to the public school teachers in Tucson during a conference and explain the benefits of nuclear energy and the basics of nuclear energy period because of political pressure and Prejudice every teacher told me that from an academic standpoint nuclear power was safe and economically sound yet they all were fearful of it and disagreed with building new plants solely for that reason. That is very very unfortunate and disturbing. We are now dismantling nuclear power plants that have run perfectly for 30 plus years for no good reason and destroying 20% of our power generation capability. As Professor Conley from Stanford University and a recognized expert in nuclear engineering explained to me, " I am tired of trying to educate people who have no concern four physical facts but only rely upon political nonsense for their decisions. These fools deserve to live in darkness and they will very shortly. At this point in my life I'm going to get a cabin in the mountains and laugh at them." Professor Kanye what's my Nuclear engineering professor at Stanford in The Graduate mechanical engineering program. It was sad to see his discouragement and lack of trust of the American public. I am hopeful at least a few voters will not continue being totally ignorant and educate themselves with the truth about nuclear power not the nonsense and lies been promoted by The antinuclear Advocate. Professor Conley offered to debate any of them at the end of his nuclear engineering course at Stanford. He made this offer for 15 years and no one offered to take him up on it. Yet, those ignorant fools continue to spread lies concerning nuclear power. I have published numerous books and papers on the topic which contain all of the complex analysis to prove the safety of nuclear power. It began with what is called a cradle-to-grave analysis that I developed during my graduate. At Stanford. Nuclear is actually a very simple technology compared with fossil fuel period is well understood. Unfortunately people fear the unknown and sadly the media is only concerned with sensationalism and greatly promotes fear of nuclear power. even more sadly are the government that seek to gain with manipulation of the topic such as Japan. After the tsunami hit they made false claims concerning contamination because they knew that the International Community May of the United States would pay for Dangerous that did not exist. Low energy beta emissions from tritium are not hazardous. Get the United States gave Japan 300 million dollars what's the ultimately use to expand their whaling Fleet in Antarctica. Sad but true. We need to realize that other countries do not operate with the saying safety standards that United States does. Hence we cannot use the failings of other nations to drive our decision-making. Instead, we need to deal with drinks which seems to be impossible with the present media climate. But the reality is that without nuclear power United States cannot generate sufficient nuclear power in an environmentally acceptable way. It is simply impossible. we have pumped millions of pounds of toxic and Radioactive compounds into our air and at the same time developed hundreds of millions of tons of toxic and real active waste at coal-fired power plants. this in my opinion is unacceptable. Engineers have known for a very long time that fossil fuel plants are environmental disasters but because there is little political opposition to them combined with the fact that we need the power has caused environmentalist to put their head in the sand. It's interesting that the regulations allow fossil fuel plants to exceed clean air regulations when power generation is insufficient to meet need. In other words to heck with the environment when I need to run my air conditioning. But this does not have to be the case as we have an incredibly safe and ecologically wonderful solution in nuclear power. The only problem is a political one. it is truly sad that for the lies and fear-mongering of the activist
Crazy 8s Drums (5 months ago)
You are correct. The hippies (SJWs, communists, neo-liberals) screw up everything they turn their empty minds to.
dephxaz (5 months ago)
Nikola Tesla an immigrant from the old Yugoslavia should get all the credits, not those who took advantage of him.
Monkey Boy (5 months ago)
They said the San Onofra power plants produced 20% of California's electricity. it closed in 2000, the same year that the Democrat Sacramento congress allowed "bidding" on electricity in California. That summer San Diego and LA blacked out during the days. California did not reproduce that power plant.
Arthur Yagudayev (5 months ago)
Please sign this petition for a waste consuming, meltdown proof Liquid Flouride Thorium reactor. https://www.change.org/p/to-nuclear-regulatory-commission-department-of-energy-to-grant-licenses-for-meltdown-proof-liquid-fluoride-thorium-reactors-to-reduce-the-impact-of-climate-change-reduce-nuclear-waste-and-produce-leukemia-fighting-isotopes
Alvin Gray (5 months ago)
Nikola Tesla.....
Rufo Rufo (5 months ago)
yeah.. all bullshit.., no credit to tesla
Michael LeBlanc (5 months ago)
Three Mile Island, the company lied to the public, and the US Nuclear Agency failed to warn the public. Who knows the real amount of radioactive material that was released? The government and industry continue to lie to the public.
Rancid Reducer (5 months ago)
It wasn't Westinghouse's AC, it was Tesla's. Albeit it wasn't Tesla's entire idea, he made it viable and made many practical inventions from it. All that being said, it's a boring documentary with a conclusion warning of impending doom unless 'we' change to their methods.
vvdghdtjh fhgdfgjh (5 months ago)
edison did not invent ac power. tesla did.
F M (5 months ago)
Westinghouse didn't do anything except rip Tesla off. Tesla is the real hero!
F M (5 months ago)
RETARD UNITS! Instant dislike!
shango thomas (5 months ago)
My physics teacher back in high school in Africa enlightened me on how Americans try to cover up tesla.
shango thomas (5 months ago)
Nicola tesla. Fuck propaganda
Garrett McGibney (5 months ago)
How old is this documentary, plus for some reason they can't pronounce turbine, they keep say turbin which annoys the shit out of me
SPACE TRUCKER (5 months ago)
A turbine is used in a power plant, a turbin is what you see on CNN.
Gilbert Conner (5 months ago)
black people with nuclear bombs.good.hes darker than me.lofk
Frank Koslowski (5 months ago)
Turbine exhaust steam being run into condensers to fuel rivers and local water bodies with warm waste water in an effort to destabilize fragile biospheres? Why not recycle post turbine steam within a closed system, given that the power plant is not equipped with old fashion James Watt piston engines to run supplementary low power generators at marginal investors' cost.
ROBIN MASON (5 months ago)
The Hoover Dam is not one of the biggest dams, only producing 2.4 megawatts! The biggest is produces 22.5 GW!
leo olsthoorn (5 months ago)
You never mention thorium , the real solution
Alvin Liu (6 months ago)
China supplier for power plant and water treatment:Jiangsu New Chunjiang Environmental Protection Engineering Co.,Ltd. Website:www.cjhb.com
Wolfcat Wildcat (6 months ago)
ok solar company sponsored program, cause they aren't mentioning the pollution causes mining, refining  the minerals and nature required to make a solar panel
jyzoomer (6 months ago)
Whats the point of putting up a video in HD when its at one time or another been worse than something like 640x480.. the only thin HD are the words Geographic History.... No one 'invented' AC -- it was always there. - but Tesla is missing the bigger credit here. I think this is more properly called Propaganda but i'm not sure in who's interest, its just against the legacy of Tesla. - - and nowadays Tesla isn't the whole story of long distance and inter-region distribution of power; AC is useless if two in-coherent AC sources are joined together (so one would augment the other) as is not uncommon today where DC _is_ used.
John Titor (6 months ago)
Research Thorium !!!!!!
Defral H (6 months ago)
so, video cameras invented before electricity? what kind of power that powered video cameras?
Keith Needham (6 months ago)
Total lie, TESLA !!!!
Donald Baker (6 months ago)
Some day we'll address the real problem. There's never going to be enough energy to satisfy our needs unless we stop breeding like rats.
Metalgear SolidSnake (6 months ago)
Clean power, and they use Coal to heat up the steam................ Who knows..?
Largest Classifieds (6 months ago)
Impressive to see the huge infact largest Power Plant
Rumple Stiltskin (6 months ago)
circa 1977
Dennis Dowd (6 months ago)
Edison was wrong and his ego couldn't stand it. Edison was also jealous of of Tesla. 😎🤔 In today world DC current might become the standard, this is because power can now be made at the home through solar power and more. Soon most homes might have both AC & DC, where DC is what our today's smartphone industry uses.🤔😎 With today's threat of terrorism, local home power manufacturing and storage, via battery, is a much safer system. Plus with the increase use of electrical car, is making it more feasible. 🙄
VolatileTemper93 (6 months ago)
I have hope one day they will crack the massive nut that is sustained fusion . That will render all power sources obsolete.
Keith Ralfs (6 months ago)
What about Tesla he invented both A/C current & actually the light bulb - Edison stole the ideas from Tesla
Thomas Edison and George Robert are thief, they stolen Tesla invention and given his invention to own their names.
Richard Werkhoven (6 months ago)
Solar power is way more efficient than Nuclear - the efficiency argument is such a joke. Yes rooftop solar is killing the Nuclear industry, and is going to kill the coal industry. You can tell this was pre-2011 also. (guess why?)
Digital Dragon (6 months ago)
Why am i looking at the second largest coal plant in the us, and not the largest power plant in the world?..
IslanderJer (6 months ago)
3600RPM gives the USA a frequency of 60Hz (or 60RPS).. in the UK our transformers have a humming sound at 50Hz, so our generators run at 50*60 = 3000RPM.. that's the main difference between the US and EU power grids
Thomas Truther (6 months ago)
There are no power plants in America as far as I know
SteelRaptor24 (6 months ago)
The intelligence community has the masses bullshitted about Nikola Tesla, he created A.C. current, and had hundreds of patents, some seized by the military and kept secret to this day. It's much easier to fool the masses than to convince them they have been fooled.
JetMechMA (6 months ago)
Funny...he talks about eventually replacing the existing systems with newer renewable sources of power.....but while he's saying this they show a video of hydro-electric power......which is TOTALLY renewable and the cleanest possible power of them all.
JetMechMA (6 months ago)
I don't get it.......WHY do they cool the steam back into water after they went to all that trouble to turn it into steam in the first place? Can't they just keep extracting energy OUT of the steam until it is too cool to use? Then just run it back into the system to be re-heated and start the cycle all over again. What am I missing here? I would think that the effort to heat the water would be minimized as much as possible.
JetMechMA (6 months ago)
I don't understand their concept of having 3 different kinds of power plants. Why not just have the "base load" plant have enough generators so that they can put as many generators on-line as needed for the demand? Bring them on-line as needed and shut them down when demand decreases? This business of having three different kinds of power plants sounds like the power company bilking the customers.
JetMechMA (6 months ago)
"The History Channel, Where the Past becomes a lie."
RodneyArt Design (6 months ago)
WOW... no Tesla.. Ending video in... 3, 2, 1
Jarak Somptril (6 months ago)
lol he said "charged electrons"
Some Things In Life (6 months ago)
Westinghouse? More like Teslaaaaaaa!!!!
bettygoodbody (6 months ago)
some people call it Boulder dam
bettygoodbody (6 months ago)
Hoover dam is gorgeous I've been there
lemmy (7 months ago)
Solar is the future
dotch (7 months ago)
Downvote for your retarded grammar
Alex d (7 months ago)
Nikola Tesla is the reason we have electric throughout the world. Westinghouse was just a business man that made us pay allot of money for electricity which Tesla wanted to distribute for FREE. And designed equipment that harvested it for FREE.
doggy dogg doggy (7 months ago)
Solar power. That. THE PEOPLE do not have to pay for
Franz Tafferner (5 months ago)
Go for it.....if you can afford it.
Sarah Mourning (7 months ago)
Americans intentionally leave Tesla out. It makes electricity look like an entirely american invention. All these shows including modern marvels disrespect Tesla. Most Americans do as well. Fortunately most of us technology fans know the truth. Nikola Tesla shaped the world of modern technology.
Usman javed (7 months ago)
all country power plant made pakistan investment
ShoeProducer (7 months ago)
Edison can direct my current foot into his ass.
mother goose (7 months ago)
Thorium fuel for making electricity is used with spent uranium fuel as well.
mother goose (7 months ago)
I Don't like the use of coal since it produces pollution. I think we should use thorium reactors instead of uranium reactors for energy production.
Stanley Banks (7 months ago)
What about the Baghdad battery? Electricity was around way before both of these jokers make their claim.
phuturephunk (7 months ago)
I think it's a rule that if we're talking about electricity in any capacity, especially generation, puds have to come out of the woodwork and talk about Tesla. You guys have this weird sort of cult thing going on with that, you know...
Andrew ? (7 months ago)
DONT FORGET NIKOLA TESLA! If you mention Thomas Edison and Westinghouse, you have to put Nikola Tesla on their same level or higher. And Tesla invented the distribution plan... wtf?
Zach Haus (7 months ago)
Ramon S (7 months ago)
Documentary pushes two of the biggest lies in the current age, one is the move away from fossil fuels which is simply non-sense. The other is the 3rd world somehow not having electricity is somehow our fault, further globalist non-sense. Nothing is stopping 3rd world countries building their own system, other then their own people being shit. Indeed, when they inherit western technology, as in the case of South Africa, they prove that they can't run and maintain such systems, let alone build them.
Frank Bush (7 months ago)
Lewis Howard Latimer is the one who came up with the filament in the lightbulb, making the bulb worthwhile and practical. It's unfair to only mention Thomas Edison when speaking about the development of the light bulb..
Michael Edelen (7 months ago)
Dihelson Mendonca (7 months ago)
The battle of the currents was between Edison and Tesla, you ignorant Channel !!!
papinbala (7 months ago)
this was Tesla's dream ever since he was a kid which he accomplished. Sad there is no mention of this
Hugo Ochoa (7 months ago)
cus Bruce Winker killing people whit "cancer#
Hugo Ochoa (7 months ago)
👏..thank you
Hugo Ochoa (7 months ago)
Pinche Puerco !!!!!!🙅
L TR (7 months ago)
It's nice that so many people here are aware of Tesla's contribution, but you don't seem to understand the man, or his relationship to Westinghouse. Tesla never wanted recognition for the ideas he sold to Westinghouse, he saw them as more or less frivolous and not a big part of his overall plan. What he DID want out of the deal was the large amounts of money it took to continue his research, which he got by selling them. To some degree he may not have had any real inkling of what his creations were actually worth, but that's why guys who do understand that stuff exist. Both were visionaries, but in different ways.
Dedra Kuhn (7 months ago)
I'm a Liberal, Electricity Doesn't come from some "stinky,lDirty powerplant. Power flows Out from the outlet in the wall
Moving on from the moment "Westinghouse" replaced the true founder Mr. Tesla
Illuminati Recruiter (7 months ago)
Bullshit channel "of the world"
Illuminati Recruiter (7 months ago)
of the world....
BRUTALLEGENDD (7 months ago)
Thorium is more abundant in the earth crust than you think. Thorium is found in small amounts in most rocks and soils. Soil commonly contains an average of around 6 parts per million (ppm) of thorium. Thorium occurs in several minerals including thorite (ThSiO4), thorianite (ThO2 + UO2) and monazite. Thorianite is a rare mineral and may contain up to about 12% thorium oxide. Monazite contains 2.5% thorium, allanite has 0.1 to 2% thorium and zircon can have up to 0.4% thorium. Thorium-containing minerals occur on all continents. Thorium is several times more abundant in Earth's crust than all isotopes of uranium combined and thorium-232 is several hundred times more abundant than uranium-235. Present knowledge of the distribution of thorium resources is poor because of the relatively low-key exploration efforts arising out of insignificant demand. There are two sets of estimates that define world thorium reserves, one set by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the other supported by reports from the OECD and the International Atomic Energy Agency (the IAEA). Under the USGS estimate, United States, Australia, and India have particularly large reserves of thorium. India and Australia are believed to possess about 300,000 tonnes each; i.e. each has 25% of the world's thorium reserves. In the OECD reports, however, estimates of Australia's Reasonably Assured Reserves (RAR) of thorium indicate only 19,000 tonnes and not 300,000 tonnes as indicated by USGS. The two sources vary wildly for countries such as Brazil, Turkey, and Australia, but both reports appear to show some consistency with respect to India's thorium reserve figures, with 290,000 tonnes (USGS) and 319,000 tonnes (OECD/IAEA). The Lemhi Pass, along the Idaho-Montana border, has one of the world's largest known high-quality thorium deposits. Thorium Energy, Inc. has the mineral rights to approximately 1360 acres (5.5 sq km) of it and states that they have proven thorium oxide reserves of 600 thousand tons and probable reserves of an additional 1.8 million tons within their claim. In event of a thorium fuel cycle, Conway granite with 56 (±6) parts per million thorium could provide a major low-grade resource; a 307 sq mile (795 sq km) "main mass" in New Hampshire is estimated to contain over three million metric tons per 100 feet (30 m) of depth (i.e. 1 kg thorium in eight cubic metres of rock), of which two-thirds is "readily leachable". Even common granite rock with 13 PPM thorium concentration (just twice the crustal average, along with 4 ppm uranium) contains potential nuclear energy equivalent to 50 times the entire rock's mass in coal, although there is no incentive to resort to such very low-grade deposits so long as much higher-grade deposits remain available and cheaper to extract. Thorium has been produced in excess of demand from the refining of rare-earth elements. Thorium (Th-232) is not itself fissile and so is not directly usable in a thermal neutron reactor. However, it is ‘fertile’ and upon absorbing a neutron will transmute to uranium-233 (U-233)a, which is an excellent fissile fuel materialb. In this regard it is similar to uranium-238 (which transmutes to plutonium-239). All thorium fuel concepts therefore require that Th-232 is first irradiated in a reactor to provide the necessary neutron dosing to produce protactinium-233. The Pa-233 that is produced can either be chemically separated from the parent thorium fuel and the decay product U-233 then recycled into new fuel, or the U-233 may be usable ‘in-situ’ in the same fuel form, especially in molten salt reactors (MSRs).Thorium fuels therefore need a fissile material as a ‘driver’ so that a chain reaction (and thus supply of surplus neutrons) can be maintained. The only fissile driver options are U-233, U-235 or Pu-239. (None of these is easy to supply)It is possible – but quite difficult – to design thorium fuels that produce more U-233 in thermal reactors than the fissile material they consume (this is referred to as having a fissile conversion ratio of more than 1.0 and is also called breeding). Thermal breeding with thorium requires that the neutron economy in the reactor has to be very good (ie, there must be low neutron loss through escape or parasitic absorption). The possibility to breed fissile material in slow neutron systems is a unique feature for thorium-based fuels and is not possible with uranium fuels.Another distinct option for using thorium is as a ‘fertile matrix’ for fuels containing plutonium that serves as the fissile driver while being consumed (and even other transuranic elements like americium). Mixed thorium-plutonium oxide (Th-Pu MOX) fuel is an analog of current uranium-MOX fuel, but no new plutonium is produced from the thorium component, unlike for uranium fuels in U-Pu MOX fuel, and so the level of net consumption of plutonium is high. Production of all actinides is lower than with conventional fuel, and negative reactivity coefficient is enhanced compared with U-Pu MOX fuel.In fresh thorium fuel, all of the fissions (thus power and neutrons) derive from the driver component. As the fuel operates the U-233 content gradually increases and it contributes more and more to the power output of the fuel. The ultimate energy output from U-233 (and hence indirectly thorium) depends on numerous fuel design parameters, including: fuel burn-up attained, fuel arrangement, neutron energy spectrum and neutron flux (affecting the intermediate product protactinium-233, which is a neutron absorber). The fission of a U-233 nucleus releases about the same amount of energy (200 MeV) as that of U-235.An important principle in the design of thorium fuel systems is that of heterogeneous fuel arrangement in which a high fissile (and therefore higher power) fuel zone called the seed region is physically separated from the fertile (low or zero power) thorium part of the fuel – often called the blanket. Such an arrangement is far better for supplying surplus neutrons to thorium nuclei so they can convert to fissile U-233, in fact all thermal breeding fuel designs are heterogeneous. This principle applies to all the thorium-capable reactor systems.Th-232 is fissionable with fast neutrons of over 1 MeV energy. It could therefore be used in fast molten salt and other Gen IV reactors with uranium or plutonium fuel to initiate fission. However, Th-232 fast fissions only one tenth as well as U-238, so there is no particular reason for using thorium in fast reactors, given the huge amount of depleted uranium awaiting use.In Norway, Thor Energy is developing and testing two thorium-bearing fuels for use in existing nuclear power plants. Fuel rods containing thorium additive (Th-Add) and also thorium MOX (with Pu) fuel rods have been in a five-year irradiation trial since April 2013 at the Halden test reactor. The company is working towards obtaining regulatory approval for the commercial production and use of Th-Add fuel by 2017-18, and to market the fuel soon thereafter. In mid-2015 a second batch of Th-MOX fuel pellets will commence testing. Thor Energy and several utilities from North America and Europe are initiating feasibility studies to investigate the use of Th-Add fuel in commercial reactors. This fuel is promoted as a means to improve power profiles within commercial reactors.Reactors able to use thoriumThere are seven types of reactor into which thorium can be introduced as a nuclear fuel. The first five of these have all entered into operational service at some point. The last two are still conceptual:Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs): These are well suited for thorium fuels due to their combination of: (i) excellent neutron economy (their low parasitic neutron absorption means more neutrons can be absorbed by thorium to produce useful U-233), (ii) slightly faster average neutron energy which favours conversion to U-233, (iii) flexible on-line refueling capability. Furthermore, heavy water reactors (especially CANDU) are well established and widely-deployed commercial technology for which there is extensive licensing experience.There is potential application to Enhanced Candu 6 (EC6) and ACR-1000 reactors fueled with 5% plutonium (reactor grade) plus thorium. In the closed fuel cycle, the driver fuel required for starting off is progressively replaced with recycled U-233, so that on reaching equilibrium 80% of the energy comes from thorium. Fissile drive fuel could be LEU, plutonium, or recycled uranium from LWR. Fleets of PHWRs with near-self-sufficient equilibrium thorium fuel cycles could be supported by a few fast breeder reactors to provide plutonium.High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTRs): These are well suited for thorium-based fuels in the form of robust ‘TRISO’ coated particles of thorium mixed with plutonium or enriched uranium, coated with pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide layers which retain fission gases. The fuel particles are embedded in a graphite matrix that is very stable at high temperatures. Such fuels can be irradiated for very long periods and thus deeply burn their original fissile charge. Thorium fuels can be designed for both ‘pebble bed’ and ‘prismatic’ types of HTR reactors.Boiling (Light) Water Reactors (BWRs): BWR fuel assemblies can be flexibly designed in terms of rods with varying compositions (fissile content), and structural features enabling the fuel to experience more or less moderation (eg, half-length fuel rods). So as you can see there you moron you do not know as much as you think you do. Educate yourself before you embarrass yourself.
Thom De Jong (7 months ago)
Nikola Tesla did it much better with electricity!
Jim Bowen (7 months ago)
stfu no he didnt
Ralph Ramos (7 months ago)
Edison was the Biggest Piece of $hit ever....Nicolas Tesla was the Shit....
Jim Bowen (7 months ago)
no he fucking wasnt he could not transmit SHIT. You conspiracy NUT
Fuzzy Peaches (7 months ago)
Nuclear pollution the longest lasting and deadliest of all energy sources
Charlie Wolf (7 months ago)
Only your title is in 720P. The rest of the video is such poor quality and resolution it is unwatchable. 360P. Really? Unforgivable!
Connor Anderson (7 months ago)
No mention of Nikola Tesla? What the hell is wrong with society....
Jim Bowen (7 months ago)
Because he was a nut ! He couldnt transmit over long distance you retard ! Get a University Electrical Engineering Degree PHd like me then we talk ok? You fucking nut! Fucking idiot!
Jeff Beck (7 months ago)
Jim Bowen (7 months ago)
You fucking nut! Fucking idiot!

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